Slovensky Cuvac
Other names:
SWlovakian Cuvac
Slovak Cuvac,
Slovak Chuvach,
Tatransky Cuvac,
Slovak Tschuvatsch
Weight Male 36–44 kg (79–97 lbs)

Female 31–37 kg (68–81 lbs)

Height Male 62–70 cm (25–28 in)

Female 59–65 cm (25–28 in)

Coat Medium length - thick and
Color White

First time in history of the STDCOA we will take measurement
of your Cuvac at the next
(A Ty Biely Cuvacu (White Sheep Dog) - From The
Mountain Paradise - Ziarislav)
call SKYPE:

Slovensky Cuvac Dog Club of America
We want to talk only about the white breeds in Europe use in various terrains (mountains, Puzta Tatra Mountain, Alpes) and different weather conditions from hot areas to icy cold mountains.. But as these breeds developed in various countries and regions (Slovakia, Italy, France, Hungary, Poland Turkey and other countries), they began to show distinct differences in size, type.character.

The five white European flock guardian/sheepdogs are:

the Great Pyrenees [Chein de Pyrénées]
the Hungarian Kuvasz
the Abbruzzese Maremma
the Polski Owczarek Podhalanski
the Slovenský Čuvač

Over the years, breeders who wanted to preserve certain traits in their dogs started breeding to a standard or type - certain colors, sizes, height, musculature, coat type, pigments, etc. So the current breed standards for the white ones create more notable differences in these types than could be found in these same breeds 200 years ago. Purebred show dogs strive to conform to the highest standard of their breed's type. The ones classified as "excellent" are recognizably different from the other different white flock guardians because of this fixing of "type" by the breeders. Medium quality dogs sold as companions and pets often have
faults in height, weight, coats, size of the head or the way the ears are set, and so they appear to have more similarities to the other white flock guardian breeds. For all these breeds are stasndards published at
The Great Pyrenees
Native to France, the Pyr is the largest, tallest and most well-known of the white ones. The Pyr coat is often white since about 1 in 4 Pyr puppies is born pure white. But other coloring is allowed-gray, badger, reddish brown or varying shades of tan on the ears, head, face, tail and body. The Slovenský Čuvač and the other white ones are only bred in white and coloring is considered a fault. The Pyr head is wedge shaped, with a rounded crown. The weight ranges from 85 to 140 lbs. or more. The Pyr stands 25 to 32 inches to the shoulder, which is considerably heavier and taller than a Slovenský Čuvač. Double dewclaws on both hind legs
are required for a Pyr. But these dewclaws are considered a fault in the other four white breeds.
[Great Pry Breed Standard-  or AKC standard]
The Kuvasz
An ancient Hungarian herding breed, the Kuvasz is smaller and leaner than a Pyr and bred only in white with no color markings. It is generally considered more active than a Pyr, with a wavier coat and a more wedge shaped head. The coat is double, coarse and typically wavier than the other white ones. In the Hungarian breed standard the coat must have a notable curl. The Kuvasz is medium boned, well-muscled, weighing 100-115 lbs. The skull is oblong but not pointed, and the forehead is long and slightly domed. The ears are different than the other white ones, being V shaped and set back. The stomach is well tucked up. Notable
is the Kuvasz' slate colored skin, the more pigment the better, and the low-set, slight bend upward of the tail which should not be carried over the top of the back. The Hungarian breed standard does not allow for straight coats or dome shaped heads.
[Kuvasz Breed or AKC standard]
The Maremma
This large, strongly built dog, weighing about 77-99 lbs., is native to Italy and it differs in several ways from the other white ones. Some say the a Maremma appears more rustic. The head is large, flat and wide between the ears, reminiscent of a polar bear. The ears are small, set high, V-shaped and the tips are never rounded. The eye color of the other 4 breeds are dark brown, but in a Maremma it varies from ochre to auburn. The lips are only slightly developed and barely cover the teeth. The tail should never be held above the back, even when working. Working Maremmas are allowed to have their ears cut. There is documented
evidence of the Maremma in Italy dating back to the 13th century. A shorter coated Maremmano and the longer backed Abruzzese merged into one breed sometime in the 1860s. Mostly the working Maremmano have the ears shortend, so that wild animals have no point of attack at their head.
[Maremma Breed Standard]
The Polski Owczarek Podhalanski
[Polish Tatra Sheepdog]
Native to southern Poland, from the Carpathian Mountains, the Poldhalane is not difficult to distinguish from the Slovenský Čuvač. ( a Slovensky Cuvac must have a sissor bit and a Podhale must have a tongue bit - also headform, etc -  Overall it is bigger, more heavily boned and can weigh up to 140 lbs, but it is also shorter at 26 inches. Along with the Pyrenees, it is the only other white one that allows for pincer teeth and a clear, not heavy stop. The ears are set lower than a Slovensky Čuvač. Lighter eyes are not considered a fault and they seem more oval, than almond shaped. The belly is only slightly tucked up. The coat is rather
harsh, glossy and somewhat oily, and should not ever be soft, silky, distinctly wavy, single, curly or in any way like that of a kuvasz
The Slovenský Čuvač
is the National Breed of Slovakia first time registered 80 years ago (2013) It is said to have a completely different heritage from the other white ones and its skeleton shows that the Slovensky Cuvac  is related to the white polar dogs descended from arctic wolves. The SC is also the smallest of the six white ones and has a smaller build than the Pyrenees, Kuvasz, Maremmano and Polski Owczarek Podhale with a wide chest and arching ribs. Much shorter legs - like Mountain goats.SCs have broad foreheads(noselength the same like cross the forehead and the edge of the ear has to reach the end of the lips, with a shallow tapering
away towards the rear. The lips have to be closed (open lips are a major fault).
The ears are set high and have a rounded tip with fine hair on the edge. The coat is softer with liight waves on the back - no curl, and again, only white. The skin is loose. Males are having an impressive mane.
1982 Dr. Josef Schoen/NY born in Pague founded the Slovensky Cuvac Dog Club of America. 1993 he sold the Club to Nancy Smith/MA who was an active breeder for some years. 2008 Elisabeth Pisula got all documents from the Club and also the studbook. Several years noone was working for the Club, but now it is again a lot of activities.
Elisabeth Pisula got the agreement from AKC to take the breed over to the FSS registry.
2008 5 known Cuvac was alive. Now 2015 there are 71 Slovensky Cuvac known in the USA.
Since 2008 the Kennel vom Boehmerwald/Elisabeth Pisula has had a yearly litter.. There was only 2 other people breeding one time a litter, each time 2 puppies. But they are not longer member of the Club.
Since 2009 the Slovensky Cuvac Dog Club of America 1982 is celebrating once a year a special dogshow
in Texas. Why in Texas? Because there are 24 Cuvac in Texas and sowith it is a garanty, that more dogs are showing up. We can do it in Oregon, or Virginia or Californis but at the end we will have only around 5 dogs there.
Always a judge from Europe is flying in to judge our Slovensky Cuvac and compare to other country bred once

There was Vlado Javorcik (3x) Slovakia a well recognized F.C.I Cuvac judge.
Last year our judge from Germany Mira Gehring mentioned with a lot of compliments the high quality of the American Slovensky Cuvac
2013 we invited a judge from Finland! We introduce her to you all on this page.

The show will be in October  2015 again in Richmond TX.
2012 we have had the 30th anniversiary of the Club and it was a special honor, that Visa Mattila/President of the Finnish Slovensky Cuvac Club and Seija Juselius owner of the so successful Kennel Augenzahn flew in to be a part of the show.
Visa has written an article about their visit in Texas, which is published by the Slovensky Cuvac Dog Club of America 1982 in the 3rd edition of the magazine "The PAW".
We found an agreement to import sperms of 3 different males from Europe, to be sure, the breeding is following up with new bloodlines.
All Cuvac out of the Y - Z-a and B Litter vom Boehmerwald are ready to take x-rays. Most of the known results are amazing.
The last born litter in USA was born in 2015 7 pups out of Valika Cerny koralek and Yoe Texas vom
About the Breed .

Slovenský Čuvač
Description and Character

The Slovenský Čuvač [SC] is an impressive, large, white, muscular dog with a broad chest; round head; pendant ears held high but close to the head; expressive, oval,
brown eyes; thick, double coat, 2 to 6 inches long with a slight wave; a woolly undercoat to protect them in cold weather; bred only in white; black pigmentation on the nose,
lips, around eyes; a well plumed, long, cigar-shaped tail; average weight is around 66 to 100 pounds; height is 23-28 inches to the withers; females tend to be smaller and
lighter; life expectancy of 11-13 years; quick, light-footed, even on rocky terrain; known to have great speed and power; one of the five white flock guardian dogs of Europe;
leaner than a Hungarian Kuvasz and smaller than the Great Pyrenees.  
Read more about the 5 white livestock guardian breeds of Europe

The Slovenský Čuvač has a dual nature. They were bred to instinctively guard flocks and their human family, with the power to kill a wolf or lynx, or ward off a bear. Yet they
show undying loyalty, affection and a playful nature to their owners, which makes them marvelous companion dogs.

A Slovenský Čuvač forms a strong bond with its human family. SCs want to be near you so they can watch over you. They want to be part of the family and need to be
included in your activities. When used as a working dog, they are bred to live with their flock and protect them with their life. They are independent and will not smother you
with affection. SCs make excellent walking-running companions and can be trained in agility, search and rescue, as service dogs and for other activities. They are also
content to just be companion dogs.

The Slovenský Čuvač shows great courage and dedication to work and family. They instictively protect whatever they view as their flock and family. This protection is
defensive not offensive. They are not attack dogs. They prefer to calmly wait and when necessary intimidate and scare intruders away with barking, defensive posture and
movement. They are somewhat reserved and distrusting of strangers. They can sense when a person means you harm. Intelligent, independent and sometimes stubborn,
a Čuvač is always alert to what is going on around it.

The Slovenský Čuvač is a natural guardian with an inborn drive to guard and protect. The Čuvač will defend its flock with its life. This is not a herding instinct to keep flocks in
a circle or to drive them from one place to another, although SCs have been known to help with herding and can be taught to herd. With no flock to protect, they often
substitute their human family and other pets as their flock. The SC will naturally bark at anything that seems strange or that may be perceived as a threat. Their loud bark
signals that they are going into "protection" mode. If necessary, they will raise their hackles, the fur on their neck and back, and sound a more intimidating "stay away" bark
and growl. If that doesn't disrupt the intruder's behavior, you will then hear a deep, ominous growl, that is very frightening, even primal, and that will keep most intruders

These are strong willed, independent dogs that need calm, patient, strong willed owners who will put in the time to thoroughly train their Čuvač. This is true with many dog
breeds, but it is especially true with working dog breeds like the Slovenský Čuvač which when left alone to protect a flock, needed to be able to think for themselves and
problem solve.

Owners of Čuvače will tell you that their dogs love their children as well than other animals like cats, chicken, horses and more
. They are extremely patient and tolerant of these smaller members of their flock. Watching over children is as natural as watching over a flock of sheep.

Obviously, not every Slovenský Čuvač has this exact temperament. All dogs have unique personalities which are a combination of inherited traits, inbred temperament,
handling, socialization, environmental factors and some personality quirks that just can not be easily explained. Also, as Čuvače have moved from being independent,
working dogs that live outdoors, to being family companions that live comfortably indoors and do less real "work", they are losing some of this inborn nature. They are
adapting to their softer home life and are more dedicated to being your loyal friend and companion for life.
Chuvach - Monograph by Professor Anthony Hruza translated from Czech
Breeders association Tatra shepherd-footed in Brno, based in Skalice (original, in Czech)

It was always sorry when I heard or read about the demise of one of our national breeds of domestic animals. It concerned the Chrudim fast horse and heavy draft horse Netolice, Czech robins cows, chickens Czech basins and finally, our very popular and prized hunting dog - fouska. Similarly, it was when I used to read in the twenties in Lidove noviny verdict writer Karel Capek: "I would say that a higher biological type of society and the nation is reflected in a higher biological level, his pets." On this occasion Capek warned of the possibility and
probability of extinction fatranského about the Chuvash people. I had ignored the issue of dog breeds in the Slovak Republic closer attention to me and not yet known what breed dogs under the name Fatranská Capek meant about the Chuvash people. When I found out after a few years, it occurs in the Tatras special breed of domestic cattle dog, upomínajícího on the world famous, acclaimed for Hungarian Komondor and Kuvasz, I became a matter closer zajímati. I used to refer to this Tatra domestic cattle dog naming Čapkova about the
Chuvash people to save by many Slovak dog ever used, I zčeštil on Chuvach.

the shepherd and dog. It burly stature, strong bones and strong muscles, during which excels in agility on land, in water and on smooth ice. In the mountains guide the shepherds. She can be applied while tending their herds, maintain order so that the herds too nerozbíhala. Protecting them from dangerous precipices and be able to preserve as well as from criminals and from predators. When the house is a security guard who carefully monitors its safety oversight entrusted to dwelling, stables and yards and gardens. In doing so, it can apply
to be a reliable guardian of infants and small livestock. Arcita must be the task for the youth adequately prepared and trained, which has great ability. It is also a good guide and companion passenger. He admired her beauty and impressing fearless behavior at various dangers and accidents for perfect obedience and handling. Hair equipment is protected against the worst rigors of the weather, so we can apply even in circumstances where many other breeds are powerless. Among infiltrating fingers thick, dense coat has protected the toes
against injuries caused by walking and enabling the smooth sharp ice, as well as easier to swim.

In my opinion Chuvach suddenly breed large European white long-haired dog with dark-colored skin. Judging by the structure and color of the hair and exchanges, as well as by the behavior footed mainly in winter and by stop them from spreading Chuvach descendant of the great polar white dog. He was brought in the first centuries AD. Gotye and Burgundy from Pomerania on the occasion of the Gothic chasing herds of cattle originating from the southern part of Sweden to southern Europe. His oldest traces due is to seek the white
Pomeranian dog Pomeranian pastoral and pastoral Östros and sheep in Pomeranian poodle. On the European continent, this dog has developed into two main types, namely as the Tatra mountains, Carpathian, abruzský and Pyrenean shepherd and lowland as Pomeranian, Polish and Slovak. Certainly, even in other parts of Europe, this dog was found and hopefully maintains, but his breeding there kept in mind the principles of modern kynologie. Propagates also merged with other breeds or extinct, as was the case with many other breeds.
The Slovak was still at the beginning of this century, very widespread, but, as confirmed by credible witnesses, mostly Democrats. provincial gendarmerie commander Colonel and the Slovak health services MD. Janak was Chuvach early thirties of this century is exported in bulk to Germany and Poland. It went so far that lacked much that there Chuvach disappeared.

In an effort to capture this race, in terms of purity of blood prozkoumati and his breeding as one of our national breed neloveckého steady and propěstiti managed to get me out of Tater old breeding pair allegedly bred, unrelated čuvačských puppies. She was then entered into the studbook S. Ch. NO. Under Nos. 1 and 2. The surrender was bought up by industrialist Joseph, owner of the kennel "Golden Well" in Skalice. There have been defined and implemented their blood breeding 4 Generation. So, too, it was proof of their purebred. How little
purebred plemeniva in the Tatras left, emerges from the circumstances that I managed just over four years for a beneficiary to constitute a suitable breeding pair of this breed. Neither bounty CZK 400 for the gendarmerie as mere disclosure of any pure-footed did not have a positive outcome. Even re-route separately seconded representatives to the Tatras for purchase of additional pure plemeniva not succeed. During the German occupation, issued a ban on imports of dogs from Slovakia then completely impossible to import the necessary
plemeniva. It is explicable that a large majority in the studbook S. Ch. No. Of registered individuals, now at 800, the origin of the gold stud station well. When the circuit breeders spread, occurred September 23, 1933 to establish a special dog breeders association Tatra shepherd-footed in Brno with its own studbook S. Ch. No. The association became a member of the then Czechoslovak Union kennel and Cs. Canine Union and the International Canine Federation FCI in Brussels.

The Slovak Republic and Ruthenia was not on the slightest interest in this matter and also in the Czech lands was difficult to find the desired understanding and comprehension. So I gave r. 1934 in the agricultural radio and then published in a veterinary horizon and a worksheet Dog treatise on "groves and their culture in cynology". Here I defended my view that the Hungarian universally regarded as "kuvasz" comes from Slovakia, where they developed mainly in the Tatras, like that of the mountain type dogs abruzského and Pyrenean.
Regarding names kuvasz, I argued that it was not the Hungarian origin, as the strain of the word in any other Hungarian word does not occur. I pointed out that the word kuvasz was adapted from Slovak Hungarian about the Chuvash people, where the strain is the one represented in other words, as čuvy, počúvati etc. and that the concept has Chuvach express his opinion alertness, attention or under.

This my treatise was published in September 1935 in a translation by Erich Steiner at the Berlin newspaper "Der Hund". Later came the voices of Hungary, trying to refute my opinions regarding the origin footed and regarding the interpretation of his name. Hungarians used this opportunity to promote their national breeds of dogs next to the Hungarians in the languages ​​English, French and German with an appeal to the FCI and the whole world canine community.

Concerning the origin of kuvasz in the file "A Magyar Nemzeti kutyafajták fajtajellegeinek lierása" (1935), published in solemn equipment state colors and the national emblem in four languages ​​simply asserts that kuvasz is a great-pramaďarským breed whose ancestors brought with them from the Hungarians their Asian homeland. Expanded upon in detail in the July issue sheet "A Kutya" from r. 1936 in English, French and Hungarian origin kuvasz Countess Üchtritzová. To this point to the outlets R. Mifka administrator studbook S. Ch. NO., As
presented at the meeting of the Bureau of S. Ch. NO.

"The writer assumes that Hungarians are the descendants of the Huns or with them closely related strain. It should poukázati that this assumption is not correct. In the Middle Ages Hungarians considered descendants of the Huns or for relatives, in the nineteenth century, however, came under investigation jazykozpytného Hungarian philologists and Pavel Josef Budenz Hunfalvy to recognize that the Hungarian belongs to the Finno-Ugric group of languages ​​and is therefore among Hungarians and Huns any tribal relations.

In his article beautifully and obviously lovingly written appeals to the writer of the ancient chronicles and I think it would greatly benefit the research on the origin of kuvasz had denounced what these chronicles goes and what historical sources all of its considerations apply.

At the time of arrival to the Hungarian plains they professed pagan Hungarians and this time preserved no written records already, because by the time Hungarians work Volfa Gorge and Asbóth Oszkaza probably did not know how to write.

The first written records of Hungarian originated nearly 100 years after the forced conversion of Sovereign Géza Hungarians to Christianity. It is not a document that should value and importance of historical sources. It is an inventory of rumors and legends Hunech staromaďarských, and I think the author just these bases its considerations. I guess so because the details contain a number of irregularities which must be poukázati:

1.Soudí that kuvasz is an ancient breed, whose foreign blood only served to refresh and prevent its degeneration. This view is untenable. Admixture of foreign blood indicates always crossing all its biological consequences.
2.Uvádí that kuvasz was at all times, always a dog Hungarians allied with them views. Even here in terms of apparent mistake. Among tribal peoples related to Hungarians need to count Bulgarians, Khazars and baked, then Osťáky, Zyrjany, Mordvin, Čeremisy and j. These nations do not have a dog footed similar and it is not known that he ever had been such a dog. It is one of many pieces of evidence that here for lack of space, I can not argues that neither the Hungarians such a dog before coming to the Hungarian plains had.
3.Autorka talking about Chinese block letters, and there would be particularly desirable to explain what is meant by this. The earliest Chinese characters were node that was replaced lettering bar, an established ruler Fo-hi. Already around 2650 BC, was introduced character font, which is the foundation of fonts previously used. Mention of Chinese block letters appears therefore totally incomprehensible.
4.o AETI believes that tells less detail about the Hungarian siege Wall of China than Tibetan and Chinese stone inscriptions printed characters. There also would be desirable to explain that the person is here meant. If it is a AETI, Roman statesman and military leader, then of course he could not tells about the war expeditions Hungarians nothing at all. Aetius lived from 395-454 AD, and could not know the Hungarians, and I think that he was not a writer.
5.Podle ancient chronicles allegedly used the Huns and Avars big white dog for tracking enemy. Such dogs allegedly cut out his tongue, so they could not bark to reveal the enemy. Apartment 'and the message was this for answering questions who brought Kuvasz to Hungary, insignificant, is, after all, important to assess the credibility of the sources of the author, if we consider that a dog without language could not bark and howl, but hardly could receive, and food Water and sweat properly.
6.Maďaři footed began to use them for the title kuvasz only recently, and this circumstance, the author apologizes for the fact that thousands of years ago had neither humans nor animals names. This explanation can not be ignored, silence. On arrival in the lowlands Hungarian Hungarians had already names for each species ,. A discerning the buffalo and cattle, a cat from a dog etc. Given the relatively large supply of logs and word shapes from the time arrival of the Magyars in Hungary can not be deemed that they would not have their own
name for a breed of dog that different from other dogs if they were not such a dog should.
7. The type of opinion of the author brought the Huns and Hungarians blood kuvasz into the high north and the Pyrenees, where he maintained crossed with other breeds. If it is already highly dubious that the Huns were brought to a high kuvasz north and the Pyrenees, is about the Hungarians. any such possibility entirely excluded. Among other things, also because in Central Italy (Abruzzo) and current northern Germany they never arrived. Indeed, the white northern German shepherd dog, dog Pyrenean and abruzský is so similar Chuvach that
these breeds can not regard as a product kuvasz crossing with other breeds. Runs here rather the same breed, which under different ecological conditions became somewhat divergent breeding characters. A similar phenomenon we see today in Hungary and the Slovak Republic where Slovak Chuvach in the high mountains and Hungarian kuvasz in Hungarian Plain evolved so differently that today represent two mutually recognizable safely
8.S opinion of the author, as if the narrow head and thin weedy physique were a sign of degeneration, can not agree. This phenomenon is probably the result of crossing kuvasz with borzoi, among others, also because the animals of this type does not appear other známekZ this recitation is clear about what basic errors and irregularities in relation to article Countess Üchtritzové on the origin of kuvasz.

It's no different with information about the arrival of kuvasz, as they are presented to the public in the canine world have already mentioned a ceremonial promotion file on the Hungarian national breeds. Here, p. 9 p .. asserts that kuvasz is a great-pramaďarský "kind", whose ancestors brought with them the Hungarians even from his Asiatic homeland, and who retained their breed characteristics remarkably without any crossing. At pp. 33, however, says:

Hungarian herding dog is the least known "types" dog. The emergence of this breed can actually be exactly proven. Legend says that Serbian herdsmen found one litter of wolf pups. They submitted them water and watched as they drink. She who sipped water, beaten, but she, who by the way water dog licked, reared and trained herds. From this crossing wolves with domestic dogs apparently originate Hungarian pastýřští dogs. That is, kuvasz dog pastoral, Hungarians proclaim the official standard on page 34 .. German writer and Mut in K. o.
K. on May 31, 1929 at the outset.

I guess that's what the Hungarian kynologie in a festive edition of "A Kutya" and even in the official determination of breed features of Hungarian national breeds of dogs equipped solemnly file provided with the national emblem, proclaims in three languages, is all it takes and can of Origin kuvasz communicate, I can not but from the data of nowhere for this purpose recesses. For the best German experts and the organizers of the Hungarian national breed dog breeds not only in Germany but also in Hungary declares kynologický writer DW Mut,
first-Chairman Komondor Club (KOK) in Gauting near Munich. The author writes in a studbook KOK of 31 May 1929 introduction: "The oldest dog breed dogs are certainly pastýřští because 'they are the straightest inquiry direct descendants of the ancient Tibetan mastiff. Of all the sheepdogs are present with the most famous Hungarian, and that a Komondor kuvasz "a bit more to this argument did not Mut. I do not detect anything about this known. I can only recommend metaphor Tibetan herding dogs and bitches bred DW Muta itself, which Mut
declared representantku right Ur-type kuvasz. Even in this mutate assertion I find anything that might contrib to clarify the origin of kuvasz. Regarding names kuvasz continues Mut at this point: "The word kuvasz is identical with the word kawasz in Turkish, with kawacz in Arabic. It means so much Turkish as" an armed security guard of European ambassadors and consuls, who wear special clothing picturesque. "In Arabic means that word much like "Archer" and the same in the old Empire Mongolian languages, influenced from Tibet. Since then
they were in the old Hungary kuvasz demonstrably until the time of King Matthias I (1458- 1490), who is on their estates in Transylvania hunting especially at high behaved only princes and barons forward, and thus never in the hands of the common people do not get named after people of this beautiful, pure white animals "kawasz" protector of the high nobility. And when this dog came through various tycoons still in the hands of People, namely pastoralists, the name was transformed kawasz Hungarian word kuvasz, let 'deliberately or
inadvertently. Anyway, he should be the word kuvasz honorary title of that white hladkosrstého Hungarian herding dog since. the dog supreme nobility. "

I take the view that this interpretation does not impair or invalidate Mutův my opinion on the origin and naming kuvasz.

To document irregularities and contradictions not only mutual between Hungarian and German advocates "pragmatic" kuvasz origin, but also our own inconsistencies still I point out the following examples.

Hungarian assertions:

Komondor Kuvasz crossing the unthinkable and has therefore not impossible that this lack of opportunity as Komondor lives with a pastor on Pusz while kuvasz by the house in the village. (Official standard Hungarian. Nation. Breeds p. 12) kuvasz color pure white. For older kuvasz to a certain extent permissible yellow tinge. (Oficial. Stand. Mad. 'Nation. Breeds, p. 38).

The German:

More routes and more frequent DW Muta stay in the Hungarian pustách he showed that even there thoroughbred breeding Komondor and Kuvasz was badly neglected. Could here to find out all sorts of mostly hybrids Komondor and the Kuvasz. (KOK page 7). For kuvasz is admissible as pure black color, possibly with white breast star and little white markings on the toes and the end of the tail. (KOK p. 59.)

Ofic own inconsistency. stand. mad '. nation. I find breeds that p .. 9 states that pastoral breeds are Komondor, Puli and Pumi, while kuvasz is a breed of guard and sentry, but on page 34 .. it says literally: "In our millennial homeland live four pairs of dogs pastýřští characteristic species, and these are: 1. komondor, kuvasz 2nd, 3rd and 4th Puli Pumi. "

Mut writes in KOK, p. 9: "Anyway, he should be the word kuvasz honorary designation white hladkosrstého Hungarian cattle dog, because the dog was the highest nobility." This was stated to support its assertion about the origin kuvasz, but nothing he did not mind, so let this exclusively white male without any explanation on p. 59 KOK simply turn black after him for a German standard kuvasz fit.

It goes without saying that such a transformation is not pure breed scientifically defensible that this could only stand by admixture of foreign blood that then but it's a hybrid and not a purebred kuvasz. There can not change anything if this phenomenon perhaps sometimes in the Hungarian occurred. Merely views on some dog ČERNOUSY kynologie can recognize and reversal (atavism) is not so old at a steady race to such an extent unthinkable.

I have more to deal with the question of origin of these kuvasz was the most competent sources mad'arských and German načerpati could. Therefore I insist on my opinion, as I said at the beginning of the file that Hungary kuvasz was not brought to Hungary Hungarians, but originated from the Slovak footed. The aforementioned uncertainties, uncertainties and inconsistencies relevant literature Hungarian and German me in my conviction only strengthened.

I therefore want to have poukázati some circumstances to the benefit of my opinion. What is certain is that the Goths were already from the first century AD. a nation that had for zušlecht'ování livestock greatest understanding. According to the Gothic historian Jordanes emigrated Goths under King Beriga already in the 1st century AD. Skandza the island and founded among others, at the mouth of the Vistula Gothoskandza its headquarters in Pomerania. Certainly they brought with them also their herds, and their herding dogs and chased
necessary. As an outstanding expert in cattle and sheep to its trade with both south and north brought a recess, and certainly also the most propěstiti dogs for their needs. And there is not doubt that their choice was first and foremost on the white polar dogs, up to 75 cm high, from all Eskimo dogs nejstatnějšího and nejneohroženějšího. It is used for towing leader packs Eskimo dogs that only he is able in their ferocity and tame blatancy and opanovati. Converting the south to the new circumstances, the dog that naturally adapt to the shape and
character. But nevertheless remained the basic properties and characteristic appearance and spirituality especially among pastoral Östros Pomeranian and Pomeranian white dog pastoral. These are mainly smaller height, in about the same proportion as in the case of type footed mountain and lowland. Under consideration is the difference structures of the ear, and at Östros still upright, but with pastoral white klopeného. This is about as much as in the German sheepdog, where shorthaired character's ear upright, but a longhaired ears
drooping. White Pomeranian dog Shepherd is from lowland footed almost discerned. Sheepdog norvéžský is under construction overall eskymáckému completely like a dog, but it has by Lane "All dogs abont" pinna much larger and somewhat notwithstanding deployed. According to credible portrayed at the root of the pinna has deployed slightly ahead and in centers like the slightly banked. By approaching somewhat footed lowland type, which according to standard compared footed mountain pinna front at the root of slightly more upstanding
and agile. Ear large, drooping, can be explained mainly vkřížením sheep poodle.

It is strange that as the Slovak Republic and in Hungary, this dog was also in Pomerania nigh unto extinction. Here they were, MD. Rassow, DVM. Ludes and DVM. Wieland, who undertook the rescue of remnants of the original domestic shocks and set up for them to r. 1936 own stud book. On the World Dog Show in Frankfurt am Main. R. 1935 showed a very nice collection of 12 sheepdogs Pomeranian domestic breeding. Just mentioned two shocks Pomeranian pet dogs, a poodle Östros serving as evidence of the transition from the Eskimo
dog into footed. evidence of cultivation Arts Goths also sees the scrubby Östros Pomeranian, whom I gather that was vypěstěn of Östros large, which bears a stunted dwarf shape, normally permissible weight of 1, 5 kg to 15 kg. This span of up to tenfold body weight to a great extent explains the differences in size of individual shocks of this breed.

Small white dwarf Pomeranian Östros is an offshoot of a large white Pomeranian Östros, as is the case with other breeds, such as. Bulldog, bullterrier, greyhound, poodle etc. The quick adaptability and ecological variability footed big shock to testify observed breeding station "Golden Well" . It is a typical carrying ponytail. Type the original disc convulsively rolling over the dorsal line, but in the coming generations gradually carry the vertical tail. I explain that the transition to a more peaceful way of life. According to the "Moj Pies" from May 1937
addressed to the Countess Żółtowski and Grocholski studies and tests on the remains of the original Polish lowland ovčárky which I am being identical with Tatra Cuvac lowland character, and came to the realization that this dog has long sufferings at the hands of a very old shepherds atrophied. They succeeded like feeding and proper selection of several generations to achieve in these dogs bigger size and increase the height of the original 30 cm move up to 60 cm.

Large pomořanští Shepherd Dogs accompanied the Gothic herds of cattle that was chased south, mainly in Swiss territory, already in the 3rd and 4th century AD. However, it occurred later, when gotsta growers chased from Pomerania noble herd sheep in Hungary, as stated on p. 9 of the official opening ceremony of promotional file mad'arských national breeds. On this occasion it could shepherd dog Pomeranian soon expand in neighboring Poland, which is actually retained in the old domestic breed dogs, like completely footed in smaller
type, the so-called owczarce Górskim about which he writes prof. dr. Marchlewski in sheet "Moj Pies' No.12 of the year. 1934. In addition, in Poland, also bred a great character-footed kuvasz, for which it has been in the newspaper" Moj Pies "from May 15, 1937 proposed use standard, unmodified Hungarian paying for kuvasz . It spread around Pomeranian dog shepherd in the current Slovakia and Ruthenia and then in the current Hungary. Under this assumption was that there would be a dog about five centuries before the Hungarians invaded
here. The systematic breeding-footed kuvasz in these areas can be based on literary records speak only about the second decade of this century. Until then, the pastoral breeding dogs carried out purely layman, without any special technical eye on. They were next to each other plantation and crossed Chuvach, Russian ovčárka, Komondor and Borzoi. Until there already mentioned, mainly DW Mute edits breed kuvasz and Commodore BY1 complete in this regard confusion. Count By1and Rheidt in his great work on dog breeds, issued at the
beginning of this century, still refers to as the Komondor Kuvasz. Resolution footed on the character of the mountain, a large lowland character and small, as well as the setting for its own standard and last not been done either Hungarians or Germans, but only r. 1938 Association of breeders of Tatra shepherd-footed in Brno. And yet, a thoroughbred breeding footed little shock for some purposes a special meaning and character can always be replaced with the Cuvac big shock. The difference is evident from the standard.

So as to Chuvach Slovak was also in Hungary kuvasz nigh unto extinction. Üchtritzová countess herself writes in the newspaper "A Kutya" July 1936: "The head space conceived Hungary kuvasz devote attention only when he started missing. Here are just started finding beautiful, starohistorického of Hungarian dog." O status in Hungary kuvasz possible to form an idea by the official judges' reports on autumn dog show in Budapest r. 1934 as published in the December issue of "A Kutya" from r., 1934. 3 Dogs Exposed, the first of which
inadequate sizes with an atypical coat color, the second like the first, but it still weaker condition, and the third was not even appreciated. Also in Germany, failed kuvasz imported from Hungary extinction as a result of interbreeding with Komondor and Borzoi, so it was here by Muta almost as many different types as kuvasz. When establishing studbooks (K. u. ZB) lr 1929 were in Germany only two mated eligible kuvasz (Mut K. o. K. p. 8).

Usuzovati be that Hungarians applied in a festive promotional dossier "Official standard of the Hungarian national breeds of dogs," published in Hungarian in addition to English, French and German their best.

According to historical cards penetrated the Goths in the 6th century AD. via Hungary to Italy, southern France and Spain. That was also given the possibility of extending the Pomeranian sheepdog in these areas and of kickback abruzského and Pyrenean. Burgundům who the Goths in Pomerania sided, they have already dropped r. 443 allotment of residences in Switzerland in Geneva, which was given the opportunity to spread the Pomeranian Shepherd dog into this area. In Abruzzi and Pyrenees they leveled off and keep the local impact of this
dog. In the work of Count Byland Rheidt found for images of dogs abruzských, consistent with kuvasz dog and Iberian. Pyrenees dogs are highly prized, especially in England and America. Whether and what kind of expansion came Pomeranian dog shepherd in the Alps, not to my knowledge. Brno sheet Freedom of December 3, 1927 brought the figure čuvačské bitches 7 puppies. The attached legend stated that it was a Hungarian female longhaired dog Tanár belonging to the Swiss writer Hagenbach, which was valued at 340,000 and each of
her puppy to CZK 34,000.

Pyrenean dog was certainly the Spaniards extended to South America. It is interesting in this regard, the communication member S. Ch. NO. Mr. Erich Steiner from Palestine. He writes to me: "In 1942 I wrote an article about footed in Czechoslovakia, which was published in the American journal canine Kennel Western World in Nevada. The editor of the paper Mrs. Janita Savoj then wrote me that the dog was spotted footed like the offspring of Spanish residents in the Peru mountain landscapes. "

In my opinion, blood footed raised in St. Bernard dog in which Germ favorable combination of various materials Pomeranian dog sheepdog with a home base effect caused luxurisace zmohutnění over both of their parents.

The Slovak Republic failed to arouse my interest in the question of desirable footed, but indeed I have met with resistance on this issue. It even happened that there acting Czechs, who had footed, refused to accept their dogs to these bitches members S. Ch. NO. On the other hand, Ruthenia expressed interest in the enhancement of this breed at the very land office, which in 1936 allowed the necessary funds to establish the first stud station shepherding dogs footed when economic governance in the state Poloniny Rachov. Reported on an
effort to elevate these dogs, shepherds allocated reliable plemenivo selected and introduced by apparent the proper breeding and selection. Administrator footed breed was designed official of the administration of state Poloniny Ing. Ivan Bezjazyčný.

!!! here is mentioned that Cuvac shall have a dark skin and not a pink one.
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